Topic outline

  • General

  • Signal & Noise

    This chapter describes the common sources of noise and how their effects
    can be minimized.

  • Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy

    This chapter discuss in a general the interaction of electromagnetic  waves with atomic and molecular species. Instrument for spectroscopic studies in region of ultraviolet-visible are discuss in details in this chapter

  • Infrared spectroscopy

    This chapter discuss in a general the interaction of electromagnetic waves in infrared region with molecular species. Instrumentation components for IR spectroscopy and its applications are discussed in details in this chapter.


  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been the most widely used method for the determination of single elements in analytical samples. Details principles of AAS, instrumentation components and sources of interferences are discussed in this chapter.                 

  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    HPLC is the most widely used of the entire analytical sepa ration techniques. The reasons for the popularity of the method are its sensitivity. Its ready adaptability to accurate quantitative determinations, its ease of automation, its suitability for separating non-volatile species or thermally fragile ones, and above all, its widespread applicability to substances that are important to industry, to many fields of science, and to the public. Most of the chapter deals with column applications of the important types of chromatography. The final section however, presents a brief description of a simple and inexpensive way of determining likely optimal conditions for column separations.

  • Gas Chromatography

    In gas chromatography, the components of a vaporized sample are separated as a consequence of being partitioned between a mobile gaseous phase and a liquid or a solid stationary phase held in a column. In performing a gas chromatographic separation, the sample is vaporized and injected onto the head of a chromatographic column. Elution is brought about by the flow of an inert gaseous mobile phase.  Besides the theory of GC, next section will describe the function of GC components and it applications.

  • Mass Spectrometry

    In this chapter, the nature of molecular mass spectra and some terms used are defined in molecular mass spectrometry. Various techniques used to form ions from analyte molecules in mass spectrometers and the types of spectra produced are describe in details.

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is based on the measurement of absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the radiofrequency region of roughly 4 to 900 MHz to cause nuclei to develop the energy state required for absorption to occur, it is necessary to place the analyte in an intense magnetic field.  In this chapter we describe the theory, instrumentation and applications of NMR spectroscopy.